The last decade has seen an exponential growth in the science and technology of two-dimensional materials. Beyond graphene, there is a huge variety of layered materials that range in properties from insulating to superconducting that can be grown over large scales for a variety of electronic devices and quantum technologies, such as topological quantum computing, quantum sensing, and neuromorphic computing. In this talk, I will discuss recent breakthroughs in two-dimensional atomic layer synthesis and properties, including understanding how substrate and layer thickness impacts doping of 2D materials to tune them from n- to p-type. Subsequently, I will discuss recent breakthroughs in the realization of unique 2D forms of traditional 3D metals. I will introduce a novel synthesis method, dubbed confinement heteroepitaxy (CHet), that utilizes graphene to enable the creation of atomically thin metals, enabling a new platform for creating artificial quantum lattices with atomically sharp interfaces and designed properties. By shrinking these traditional metals to atomically thin structures, we find that their properties are quite different than their bulk counterparts, lending themselves to unique quantum and optical applications not possible before.