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Le Bao

Le Bao


Le Bao is a Professor of Statistics at Penn State.

Bao received his Ph.D. in Statistics from University of Washington, Seattle in 2011. He received his M.S. in Statistics from Dalhousie University, Canada in 2005, and a B.S. in Applied Mathematics from Peking University in 2004.

His research is motivated by solving important real-world problems through developing and applying statistical methodologies. The research projects cover the areas of public health and social science, such as HIV epidemics, COVID-19 epidemic, demographic research, marginalized populations, and air pollution.

Bao serves as the technical advisor for the UNAIDS Reference Group, and the project leader for Diagnostics Modeling Consortium.



  • Cheng F.W., Gao X., Bao L., Mitchell D.C., Wood C., Sliwinski M.J., Smiciklas-Wright H., Still C.D., Rolston D.D.K., and Jensen G.L. (2017). Obesity as a risk factor for developing functional limitation among older adults: A conditional inference tree analysis. Obesity (Silver Spring). 25(7):1263-1269.
  • Eaton J. and Bao L. (2017). Accounting for non-sampling error in estimates of HIV epidemic trends from antenatal clinic sentinel surveillance. AIDS 31: S61-S68.
  • Niu X., Zhang A., Brown T., Puckett R., Mahy M., Bao L. (2017). Incorporation of hierarchical structure into EPP fitting with examples of estimating sub-national HIV/AIDS dynamics. AIDS 31: S51-S59.
  • Sheng B., Marsh K., Slavkovic A.B., Simon Gregson, Eaton J., Bao L. (2017). Statistical Models for Incorporating Data from Routine HIV Testing of Pregnant Women at Antenatal Clinics into HIV/AIDS Epidemic Estimates. AIDS 31: S87-S94.
  • Hunter D.R., Bao L., and Poss M. (2017). Assignment of Endogeneous Retrovirus Integration Sites Using a Mixture Mode. Annals of Applied Statistics 11(2): 751-770.
  • Thomas J. and Bao L. (2016). Modeling the dynamics of an HIV epidemic. Dynamic Demographic Analysis. 91-144.
  • Malhotra, R., Elleder, D., Bao, L., Hunter, D. R., Poss, M., Acharya, R. (2016). A pipeline for identifying integration sites of mobile elements in the genome using next-generation sequencing. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (BICOB). 63-69.
  • Li R., Dudek S.M., Kim D., Hall M.A., Bradford Y., Peissig P.L., Brilliant M.H., Linneman J.G., McCarty C.A., Bao L., and Ritchie M.D. (2016) Identification of genetic interaction networks via an evolutionary algorithm evolved Bayesian Network. Bio Data Mining, 9(18) DOI: 10.1186/s13040-016-0094-4.
  • Bao L., Raftery A.E., Reddy A. (2015) Estimating the sizes of populations at risk of HIV infection from multiple data sources using a Bayesian hierarchical model.Statistics and Its inference. 8(2): 125–136.
  • Bao L., Elleder D., Malhotra R., DeGiorgio M., Maravegias T., Horvath L., Carrel L., Gillin C., Hron T., Fabryova H., Hunter D. and Poss M. (2014) Computational and statistical analyses of insertional polymorphic endogenous retroviruses in a non-model organism. Computation. 2: 221-245.



STAT/IST 557, Data Mining, Fall 2011/Fall 2012/Spring2014/Spring2015/Fall 2016/Spring 2017

STAT554, Categorical Data Analysis, Fall 2014/Fall 2015/Fall 2017

STAT/MATH415, Introduction to Mathematical Statistics, Fall 2013/Spring 2016/Fall 2017/Fall 2019/Fall 2020/Spring 2022/Fall 2022

STAT897D, Applied Data Mining, Fall 2012

STAT497, Introduction to Statistical Research, Fall 2023